Plumbing equipment includes devices often hidden behind walls or in utility spaces which are not seen by the general public. It includes water meters, pumps, expansion tanks, backflow preventers, water filters, UV sterilization lights, water softeners, water heaters, heat exchangers, gauges, and control systems. Specialized plumbing tools include pipe wrenches, flaring pliers, pipe vise, pipe bending machine, pipe cutter, dies and joining tools such as soldering torches and crimp tools.New tools have been developed to help plumbers fix problems more efficiently.For example, plumbers use video cameras for inspections of hidden leaks or problems, they use hydro jets, and high pressure hydraulic pumps connected to steel cables for trench-less sewer line replacement.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing#Equipment_and_toolsProduct standards for plastics pipe systems are prepared within the standards committee known as CEN/TC155.
About plastic pipesplumber NewhamPlastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste water, chemicals, heating fluid and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure liquids, slurries, gases, compressed air and vacuum system applications. Plastic pipe systems fulfil a wide variety of service requirements.
These requirements are precisely described in a complete set of European Product Standards for each application alongside their specific characteristics. For example: Conveyance of drinking water: Hygienic requirements Conveyance of gas: Highest Safety requirements Plastic pipes for radiant heating and floor heating: Temperature resistance over decades Sewer applications: High chemical resistance. Plastic pipes are perfectly capable of fulfilling the specific requirement for each application.They do so with a high level of performance over a long lifetime and with reliability and safety. The key factor for success is achieved by maintaining consistently high quality levels. For plastic pipe products, these levels are closely defined by the different standards.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic_pipework
Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo, wood, or stone. Hollowed wooden logs wrapped in steel banding were used for plumbing pipes, particularly water mains..
Logs were used for water distribution in England close to 500 years ago.US cities began using hollowed logs in the late 1700s through the 1800s.8 Today, most plumbing supply pipe is made out of steel, copper, and plastic; most waste (also known as "soil")11 out of steel, copper, plastic, and cast iron.11 The straight sections of plumbing systems are called "pipes" or "tubes". A pipe is typically formed via casting or welding, whereas a tube is made through extrusion.
Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, while tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as brazing, compression fitting, crimping, or for plastics, solvent welding.These joining techniques are discussed in more detail in the piping and plumbing fittings article.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing#Materials